生成AI(Generative AI)は、データや入力に基づいて新しいコンテンツや情報を生成する能力を持つAIの一種です。生成AIのモデルは事前に大量のデータを学習しており、学習データのパターンや特徴を理解して新しいデータを生成する能力を獲得します。生成AIは、画像、テキスト、音声、動画などの生成を可能とし、特に有名なモデルとしてOpenAI社が開発したGPT(Generative Pre-trained Transformer)が知られています。GPTは、大規模なテキストデータセットを学習して、文章の生成や文章の翻訳など、自然言語処理のタスクを実行することができます。

参考:Introducing ChatGPT(OpenAI公式サイト)








    1. 文法や表現の練習: ChatGPTは文法的に正確な英語を生成する能力があります。英文法や表現を練習するために、ChatGPTに対して文やフレーズを提示し、その正誤やより自然な言い回しを教えてもらうことができます。

    2. 会話の練習: ChatGPTは対話型のモデルですので、英語の会話の練習に利用することもできます。自分が話す役割としてChatGPTを使い、さまざまなトピックやシチュエーションについて会話を続けることで、自信をつけることができます。

    3. リーディング理解のトレーニング: ChatGPTは豊富な一般知識を持っています。ChatGPTに対して記事やパラグラフを提示し、それに基づいて質問をすることで、リーディング理解のトレーニングを行うことができます。

    4. 文章の校正や編集の支援: 自分が書いた英文の校正や編集を求めることもできます。文章をChatGPTに提示し、文法や表現の修正案をもらうことで、より自然な英文を作成する手助けとなります。




また、例えば “Polish the following sentences.” などと注文すれば英文の添削もやってくれます。ただし表現がこなれすぎていることがあったり、カジュアルすぎる表現になっていたりする場合があるので、ChatGPTの出力を鵜呑みにするのはやめておいた方が良いと思います。


※ この英文は、イギリスの作家であるJames Wallman氏の論考 “Why We’re All So Worried About Having Too Little Time” の抜粋です。この文章はTIME誌2020年2月10日号に掲載されており、ウェブ上で閲覧することが可能です。(→外部リンク



【問題】 以下の英文を読み、その内容を70〜80字の日本語で要約せよ。句読点も字数に含める。

In the 2010s, we worried about having too many things. A growing awareness of consumerism’s effect on the environment and a desire to broadcast our lives on social media led us to value experience over things. Now we’ve started to worry about something new: too little time. Psychologists have found that experiences are more likely than material goods to deliver happiness, but of course we must make choices about which experiences to pursue. The fear of making the wrong one, and therefore wasting valuable time, is something many of us feel deeply. There is some irony to this problem: we have more free time now than we have had in decades. But for a number of reasons, it doesn’t feel that way. In his 2019 book Spending Time, Daniel S. Hamermesh explains that while our life spans have gotten a bit longer — 13% since 1960 — our spending power has surged by 198%. “It makes it difficult to stuff all the things that we want and can now afford into the growing, but increasingly relatively much more Iimited, time that we have available to purchase and to enjoy them over our lifetimes,” he writes. Next, there is our cellphone addiction. American adults spend around three and a half hours on their devices each day, trying to keep up with the volume of emails, texts, social media updates and 24/7 news. And much of our time is “contaminated time” ― when we are doing one thing but thinking about something else. Trying to get more out of every minute ― scanning Twitter while watching TV, for example ― makes us think we are being productive, but really it just makes us feel more tired out. Add to this the ever expanding options in today’s experience economy. Think of all the plays, talks, and workshops you could go to tonight. No wonder many of us suffer from what psychologists call “time famine.” There have been calls to resist the attention economy, but the factors that make us feel time-poor aren’t going away anytime soon. Tech companies, for instance, may have built apps to tell you how much time you spend on your device, but their business models rely on your continued use. People who feel short of time are more likely to be anxious or depressed. They are less likely to exercise or eat healthy foods. And they are less productive at work. It makes sense then that there has been growing interest from psychologists in the best ways to spend our time.









それと、要約の出来栄えは個人的にはそれほど良いとも感じられません。「生産性の低下」は解答に盛り込んでほしいポイントですし、「時間不足」は “恐怖” というよりも “悩み” という表現が適切です。この辺りのニュアンスは英語で出力してもらった方が性能が良さそうです(それだと日本語での要約にはなりませんが)。東大の英文要約に関しては、実際の試験で提出して満点を与えられるような解答作成はまだ難しいのかもしれません。








※ この英文の出典は理論物理学者であるJim Al-Khalili氏の著書 “The Joy of Science”(2022年)の第4章です。


Translate the following sentences into Japanese:

Of course, one of the features of modern life, mostly thanks to the internet, is that we all have to constantly make choices about what to pay attention to — what to spend our time on, even if it is for just a few minutes. Many of us today have instant access to far more information than we can ever hope to process, which has meant that our average attention span is getting shorter. The more ‘stuff’ we have to think about and focus on, the less time we are able to devote to each particular thing. People are quick to blame the internet for this reduced attention span, but while social media certainly plays its part, it is not entirely to blame. This trend can be traced back to when our world first started to become connected early in the last century as technology gave us access to an ever-increasing amount of information.





もちろん、インターネットのおかげで、現代生活の特徴のひとつは、たとえ数分でも、何に注意を払うべきか、何に時間を使うべきかを常に選択しなければならないことです。 現代人の多くは、処理しきれないほど多くの情報に瞬時にアクセスできるようになり、その結果、平均的な注意力が短くなっています。考えなければならないこと、集中しなければならないことが増えれば増えるほど、ひとつひとつのことに割ける時間は少なくなっていきます。このような注意力の低下について、人々はすぐにインターネットのせいにしますが、ソーシャルメディアがその一翼を担っていることは確かですが、完全にそのせいというわけではありません。この傾向は、前世紀初頭、世界がつながり始めたころに端を発し、テクノロジーによってますます多くの情報にアクセスできるようになったからです。


※ ただ、どちらの翻訳にも日本語の表現が微妙な部分がいくつか見受けられます。例えば “mostly thanks to the internet” は「インターネットのおかげで」よりも「インターネットのせいで」と否定的なニュアンスを含めて訳した方が良いでしょう。また、GPT-3.5では訳出すべき語が抜け落ちている箇所もあるようです。









※ GPT-4はGPT-3.5の数十から数百倍の数のパラメータで記述されているモデルです。



Debate on advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones.


Debate Topic: Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Mobile Phones

Mobile phones have become an indispensable part of our lives, offering a wide range of advantages and conveniences. However, they also present certain drawbacks and challenges. In this debate, we will explore the advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones to understand their impact on individuals and society.

Affirmative Argument: Advantages of Using Mobile Phones

Communication and Connectivity: Mobile phones enable instant and constant communication, allowing people to stay connected with others regardless of distance. They provide various means of communication, such as voice calls, text messages, and video calls, which foster relationships, facilitate business interactions, and keep individuals connected in emergencies.

Access to Information: Mobile phones offer access to a wealth of information through the internet. With just a few taps, users can search for news, browse websites, access educational resources, and gather information on a wide range of topics. This easy access to information promotes learning, personal growth, and keeps individuals informed about current events.

Convenience and Efficiency: Mobile phones have revolutionized the way we perform daily tasks. They consolidate multiple devices into one, serving as a phone, camera, music player, calendar, and more. This versatility and portability increase convenience and efficiency in managing personal and professional activities.

Safety and Emergency Situations: Mobile phones contribute to personal safety and security. In emergencies, they provide a means to contact emergency services, seek help, and inform others about critical situations. Mobile phones also offer GPS navigation, enabling users to navigate unfamiliar areas and find directions, enhancing personal safety.

Negative Argument: Disadvantages of Using Mobile Phones

Distraction and Addiction: Mobile phones can be highly addictive and lead to distractions in various aspects of life. Frequent notifications, social media, and entertainment apps can divert attention, hinder productivity, and contribute to a decline in real-world interactions. Excessive use of mobile phones may also lead to addiction, affecting mental health and overall well-being.

Negative Impact on Physical Health: Prolonged use of mobile phones can have adverse effects on physical health. Poor posture and excessive screen time can lead to musculoskeletal issues such as neck and back pain. Additionally, excessive use of mobile phones before bed can disrupt sleep patterns due to the green light emitted by screens.

Privacy and Security Concerns: Mobile phones store a vast amount of personal information, making users susceptible to privacy breaches and security threats. Cybercriminals can target mobile devices to access personal data, steal identities, and conduct fraudulent activities. Users must be vigilant and take appropriate measures to protect their privacy and data.

Social Isolation and Communication Challenges: Paradoxically, while mobile phones enhance communication, they can also contribute to social isolation. Excessive reliance on virtual interactions may lead to reduced face-to-face communication and hinder the development of interpersonal skills. Miscommunication and misunderstandings through text-based communication can also arise, lacking the nuances of verbal and nonverbal cues.

Mobile phones offer numerous advantages in terms of communication, access to information, convenience, and safety. However, they also come with disadvantages such as distractions, addiction, negative physical health effects, privacy concerns, and potential social isolation. It is essential for individuals to strike a balance in mobile phone usage, adopting healthy habits, and being mindful of the potential drawbacks. Additionally, technology companies, policymakers, and individuals must work together to address privacy and security concerns associated with mobile phone use, ensuring a safe and beneficial mobile phone experience for all.

以上は無料で利用可能なGPT-3.5のモデルの回答です。全く同じ質問を、有料版のChatGPT Plusで利用可能なGPT-4にも尋ねてみました。


Sure, I’d be happy to provide a balanced perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones.


    1. Communication: Mobile phones make it incredibly easy to stay in touch with family and friends, irrespective of their location. Voice calls, video calls, text messaging, and social media are all readily accessible.

    2. Convenience: Mobile phones are essentially mini-computers that fit in your pocket. They offer a plethora of tools, including calculators, calendars, maps, and alarm clocks, which can make your life easier.

    3. Access to Information: With a mobile phone and an internet connection, you can quickly access any information you need, from news and weather forecasts to academic papers and ebooks.

    4. Entertainment: Mobile phones can be used to play games, watch movies, listen to music, and browse the internet, providing a constant source of entertainment.

    5. Navigation: GPS features on mobile phones can provide directions and maps, making it easier to navigate unfamiliar areas.

    6. Safety: In emergencies, mobile phones can be lifesavers. They allow individuals to contact emergency services or family quickly.


    1. Distraction: Mobile phones can be major sources of distraction, leading to decreased productivity and focus. They can also disrupt sleep if used excessively before bedtime.

    2. Health Concerns: Prolonged use of mobile phones can lead to health problems like eye strain, poor posture, and in some cases, addiction.

    3. Privacy Issues: Many apps on mobile phones collect personal data, raising concerns about privacy. Furthermore, mobile phones can be vulnerable to hacking.

    4. Social Isolation: While mobile phones can connect us with people around the world, they can also make us more isolated in real life, reducing face-to-face interaction.

    5. Cost: Depending on the model and the plan, owning and maintaining a mobile phone can be quite expensive.

    6. Dependence: Over-reliance on mobile phones can lead to people losing basic skills like navigation, mental arithmetic, and even interpersonal communication.

In conclusion, while mobile phones offer numerous benefits like ease of communication, access to information, and entertainment, they also have significant drawbacks, including health concerns, privacy issues, and potential for over-dependence. It’s important to use mobile phones responsibly and be aware of their potential negative impacts.



    • コミュニケーションと人間関係の繋がりを持続させる
    • インターネットを通じて豊富な情報にアクセスできる
    • 多機能性と携帯性により利便性と効率性が向上する
    • 緊急事態における連絡手段・不慣れな土地での道案内が可能


    • 注意力散漫の原因・中毒性
    • 健康への悪影響
    • プライバシーとセキュリティの問題
    • 対面でのコミュニケーションスキルの発達が妨げられる可能性




    Debate on the impact of globalization: Does globalization bring more benefits or harm to local cultures and economies?


    The impact of globalization on local cultures and economies is a complex and multifaceted topic that has been the subject of extensive debate. There are arguments both in favor of and against globalization, with proponents emphasizing the benefits it brings, while critics highlight the potential harm it can cause. Let’s examine both perspectives:

    Benefits of Globalization:

      1. Economic Growth: Globalization has contributed to increased economic growth by facilitating the flow of goods, services, and capital across borders. This has led to enhanced productivity, job creation, and higher standards of living in many countries.
      2. Access to Markets: Globalization has opened up new markets for businesses, enabling them to reach a global customer base. This has created opportunities for businesses to expand, increase profits, and drive innovation.
      3. Cultural Exchange: Globalization has fostered cultural exchange and interaction among different societies. It has provided a platform for the exchange of ideas, values, and traditions, promoting cultural diversity and understanding.
      4. Technological Advancements: Globalization has facilitated the transfer of technology and knowledge across borders. Developing countries can benefit from access to advanced technologies, which can lead to improved infrastructure, healthcare, and education.

    Harm of Globalization:

      1. Cultural Homogenization: Critics argue that globalization can lead to the erosion of local cultures and the dominance of Western values and lifestyles. The spread of global media, consumerism, and multinational corporations may undermine traditional cultural practices and identities.
      2. Economic Inequality: Globalization has been accused of exacerbating economic inequality. Developing countries may struggle to compete with wealthier nations, leading to unequal distribution of benefits. Local industries can be overshadowed by multinational corporations, causing job losses and economic instability.
      3. Environmental Concerns: The globalized economy relies heavily on resource extraction, transportation, and production, which can have detrimental environmental impacts. Deforestation, pollution, and carbon emissions are some of the negative consequences associated with globalization.
      4. Vulnerability to Crises: Interconnectedness in the global economy can increase vulnerability to economic crises. Financial downturns or market fluctuations in one country can have ripple effects worldwide, potentially causing recessions and affecting local economies.

    It is important to note that the impact of globalization is not uniform across all countries and communities. Its effects can vary depending on factors such as a country’s level of development, governance, and cultural resilience. Overall, the debate on the impact of globalization remains ongoing, and the balance between benefits and harm depends on how globalization is managed and its effects mitigated.


    As an AI model, I don’t have personal opinions, but I can provide arguments from both sides of the debate.

    Arguments in favor of globalization’s benefits to local cultures and economies:

      1. Economic Growth: Globalization often leads to increased economic growth, as countries can specialize in certain industries and export their products globally. This can lead to job creation and wealth accumulation.

      2. Access to Goods and Services: Globalization enables countries to import a wide variety of goods and services that might not be available locally. This can improve the standard of living and increase consumer choice.

      3. Cultural Exchange: Globalization fosters a greater understanding and appreciation of different cultures through increased intercultural communication and exchange. This can lead to a richer, more diverse global culture.

      4. Innovation and Collaboration: Through globalization, ideas and innovations can spread more rapidly, leading to advancements in technology, medicine, and other fields. International collaboration can also be fostered, helping to address global challenges.

    Arguments against globalization’s impact on local cultures and economies:

      1. Cultural Homogenization: There is a risk that local cultures may be diluted or overshadowed by dominant global cultures, leading to a loss of cultural diversity and unique cultural identities.

      2. Inequality: While globalization can lead to economic growth, the benefits are not always evenly distributed, often leading to increased income inequality both within and between countries.

      3. Job Losses: Some industries may suffer or disappear altogether due to international competition, leading to job losses in certain sectors. This can have significant social and economic impacts.

      4. Environmental Degradation: Globalization can contribute to environmental degradation through increased consumption, waste, and pollution. It can also lead to overexploitation of natural resources in some regions.

    These are broad strokes of the debate, and each of these points can be expanded and nuanced with specifics, depending on the context and the particular local culture or economy in question. It’s also worth noting that many of these issues are complex and interconnected, and it’s possible to find examples of both positive and negative impacts of globalization in virtually every country and culture.


    個人的に、GPT-3.5では “Vulnerability to Crises” が有害な点として挙げられているのに、GPT-4では挙がっていないのは興味深いと感じました。実際に経済のグローバル化が金融危機の連鎖に繋がるケースは、歴史を振り返ってみても多くの事例があります。反対に、国内の計画経済により金融危機の影響を受けなかった例(世界恐慌時のソ連経済など)も知られています。もちろん、GPT-4が挙げているように企業活動のグローバル化に伴う “Job Losses” も重要なポイントではありますが…。






    Do you have any recommendations for debating topics that can enhance English writing skills?


    Certainly, debating a wide range of topics is an excellent way to enhance English writing skills. It can help students learn how to construct coherent arguments, support their points with evidence, and use persuasive language effectively. Here are some potential topics:

      1. Social Media: Discuss the impact of social media on society, considering both positive aspects (such as increased connectivity and information sharing) and negative aspects (like privacy concerns and the spread of misinformation).

      2. Online Education: Debate the benefits and drawbacks of online learning. Consider factors like flexibility, accessibility, engagement, and the quality of education.

      3. Climate Change: This global issue can be approached from many angles, such as the effectiveness of different mitigation strategies or the responsibilities of developed versus developing countries.

      4. Artificial Intelligence: Discuss the implications of AI for society, including potential benefits (like increased efficiency) and challenges (such as job displacement or ethical concerns).

      5. Animal Rights: Debate whether animals should have the same rights as humans, or discuss the ethics of practices like animal testing or factory farming.

      6. Space Exploration: Consider the benefits of space exploration against its high costs. Should we focus more on exploring our own planet first, or is space exploration crucial for our future?

      7. Privacy vs. Security: In the context of government surveillance, debate whether it’s more important to protect citizens’ privacy or to ensure their security.

      8. Universal Basic Income: Discuss whether a universal basic income would be beneficial or detrimental to society.

      9. Genetic Engineering: Debate the ethical implications of genetic engineering, particularly in humans.

      10. The Impact of Globalization: Does globalization bring more benefits or harm to local cultures and economies?

    Remember, the key to improving English writing skills isn’t just choosing a good topic, but also practicing structured, clear, and concise argumentation. It’s important to provide well-reasoned points, support them with evidence or examples, and write in a way that is engaging and easy to follow.


      1. ソーシャルメディアが社会に与える影響
      2. オンライン学習の利点と欠点
      3. 気候変動問題について
      4. 人工知能が社会にもたらす影響
      5. 動物の権利と倫理
      6. 宇宙開発について
      7. 国家権力からのプライバシー保護
      8. ベーシック・インカムの是非
      9. 遺伝子工学の倫理
      10. グローバリゼーションの影響




    Try to find another 10 topics for English writing and discussion.


    Absolutely! Here are ten discussion and English writing topics that span a range of subjects:

      1. Health and Technology: Discuss the impact of technology on health, considering both advancements in medical technology and potential negative effects of technology usage on physical and mental health.

      2. Free Speech vs. Hate Speech: Debate the fine line between protecting free speech and preventing hate speech. How should society, including social media platforms, handle this issue?

      3. Veganism: Debate the ethical, environmental, and health arguments surrounding veganism.

      4. Sustainable Energy: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy sources, and whether they can completely replace fossil fuels in the future.

      5. Immigration Policies: Explore the impacts of immigration on both the home and host countries. What kind of immigration policies should countries adopt?

      6. Gender Equality: Discuss the progress made towards gender equality and the challenges that still remain.

      7. The Role of the United Nations: Evaluate the effectiveness of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security.

      8. The Death Penalty: Debate the ethics and effectiveness of the death penalty as a form of punishment.

      9. The Influence of Advertising: Discuss the power of advertising in shaping consumer behavior and societal norms. What responsibilities do advertisers have?

      10. Mandatory Voting: Some countries require their citizens to vote. Debate the pros and cons of mandatory voting.

    As you explore these topics, remember to focus on developing clear arguments, using appropriate vocabulary and grammar, and supporting your points with logical reasoning and evidence. All of these are critical skills for English writing and discussion.


      1. テクノロジーが健康に与える影響
      2. 言論の自由を守ることとヘイトスピーチを防ぐことの両立
      3. 菜食主義をめぐる倫理的、環境的、健康的な議論
      4. 再生可能エネルギーの利点と欠点
      5. 移民政策について
      6. 男女共同参画の進展と課題
      7. 国連の役割
      8. 死刑制度の是非
      9. 広告の影響力と広告主の責任
      10. 投票の義務化






      1. 幅広い読み物を選ぶ: 多様なトピックについての理解を深めるためには、ニュース記事、学術論文、エッセイ、小説など、幅広いジャンルの読み物を選ぶことが重要です。これにより、多様な視点と情報を吸収することができます。

      2. 背景知識を深める: 特定のトピックについて深く理解するには、そのトピックに関連する基本的な情報や概念を学ぶことが重要です。例えば、気候変動について議論する場合、温室効果ガスや再生可能エネルギーについての基本的な知識が必要となります。

      3. ディベートやディスカッションに参加する: 友人やクラスメートとのディベートやディスカッションを通じて、自分の意見を明確に表現し、他人の視点を理解する能力を鍛えることができます。

      4. ノートを取る: 新しい情報や視点に出会ったときには、それをノートに記録すると良いでしょう。これにより、情報を覚えやすくなり、後で参照することも容易になります。

      5. クリティカルシンキングを鍛える: あらゆる情報に対して批判的な視点を持つことは、情報の質を評価し、複雑な問題に対する独自の解決策を考え出すために重要です。

      6. 時事問題に注意する: 新聞やニュースを定期的にチェックすることで、最新の話題や問題についての理解を深めることができます。






      1. 論理的な思考: 自分の意見を明確に伝えるためには、論理的な思考が必要です。あなたの主張は何か、それを支持する証拠は何か、反対意見に対するあなたの反論は何か、といった要素を明確にすることが重要です。

      2. 速度: 特に時間制限がある試験では、自分の意見を効率的に整理し、スピーディに表現する能力が求められます。これは、事前に多様なトピックについて考え、自分の立場を明確にすることで鍛えることができます。

      3. 明瞭さと説得力: 自分の意見を他人に伝えるためには、明確で説得力のある言葉を使うことが重要です。具体的な例を挙げたり、強力な証拠を提供したりすることで、あなたの意見を強化することができます。



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